Feb 132017

Found a good post on how to use the  rescue mode in Hetzner to setup a Logical Volume that spans multiple drives. This plus vsftpd can help setup Terabytes of space for storage as backup. In any case you should not use Hetzner for anything closely resembling a legit online service, website etc. It is only popular as Seedbox for a reason as they are quick to lock your server out.

Speaking of seedboxes, if you want to setup one here is a good script https://github.com/arakasi72/rtinst It can optionally install Webmin.

For file storage, search and download etc I have not yet found a tool. It’s mostly find and scp

If you feel adventurous I found a tricked out Seedbox setup script here https://github.com/dannyti/seedbox-from-scratch. Does everything and makes coffee.

With Bacula running on the local server I can send snapshots over to Hetzner albeit at a slow-as-snail speed. 30 Euros per month for 5.5TB of space is not too bad. I picked up a system from the their auctions and its quite alright but one shouldn’t expect performance or longevity from such systems. You get what you pay for essentially.


Jul 182015

Earlier this month towards the end of June I lost my main drive on the desktop.


It took me 2-3 days to figure out that it is not possible to boot the drive. To avoid further harm on drive I used my Second drive to boot my Windows 8.1. That was a stupid move. The windows was working again but I had lost all data on my second drive. I was certain that since I had two cloud backup providers thing would be ok. Unfortunately Backblaze which had all data except for “Program files”which it does not back up , I had no way to download it. There restore software does not work. Only way is to ship the data over.

Crashplan was much better. The application can restore and they have a Hong Kong location which is close. However it will take 3 weeks. I am now at last week of recovery. The other problem is that Crashplan backs up very slow so I did not have all the data. I will get bits and pieces.

I have the damaged internal HDD which I am trying to power on with external connector. It doesn’t seem to work. I will need to get a drive bay and try again as it did have an old copy of my data drive.

While I was in Tokyo last week, I managed to get a good deal on Samsung 3d SSD 1TB as well as Western Digital 6TB Red. I have hooked them up. I will be using the 6TB to copy all the recovered data from different sources. Then I need to compare and get the latest version out for restore. The SSD will replace my original Data drive.


If the above was not enough one of my main Servers had 2 out of 3 drives fail (hardware fault) earlier this week. Since I was travelling I could not investigate. Despair!



All hope was not lost.

This is a 3 disk Raid5 with mdadm software raid and last night I started to investigate. I was able to boot to rescue mode and found that atleast 2 out of 3 drives can be read by the OS. Only one was completely unreadable. I asked the Hosting provider to replace only one of the two faulty drives (the unreadable one) for now so I can reassemble the Raid5 and start recovery. The recovery started successfully after a couple of failed attempts with mdadm. With forced mode I was able to reassemble the Raid. cat /proc/mdstat shows that recovery is in progress.

It has been over 12 hours now. I believe another 3 hours should complete the recovery and I can mount the Raid disk to check. However I will not be using the current volume yet at all. The faulty drive may fail further and data loss can occur.

Now the plan is to replace the 3rd drive once Raid has completed recovery. The recovery will start again with the 3rd new drive. I should be able to get the complete system up in another 24 hours. Then I will start a new Server in Raid1 with enough space to pump data across to the new Server. I will need to download all of the 2.5TB of data from the new host as my first backup and then setup Rsync.

In the meanwhile, I hope I can get all my development environment, my extremely bleeding edge modded Skyrim back on my desktop T_T

What a month!



 Posted by at 5:38 pm
Feb 022014

A lot of providers will sell you 1 Gbps port with oodles of bandwidth. A test file download to boot. For most people that seems to be enough. That is incorrect in most cases. Having good speed and bandwidth is just one piece of the cake you never ate. You can have a lot of bandwidth allocated but if there is bad network connectivity, crappy maintenance, a decade old routers etc you will never be able to reap any of the benefits. Which is why you will see that some dedicated hosts do poorly as opposed to smaller shared hosting served sites when serving end users.

Here’s how to evaluate a new provider where you do not know any existing sites that you can use to test. (And please don’t use the IPs, files as target to test, those are specially setup servers)

First find out the organization name. Here I target “NoUptime“, (fictitious) since they actually have oodles of packet loss for a good example (in a bad way) nothing against them, they are great cheap cost provider.


First we need to find an IP that is live with this provider and test against it.

1. Let us go to to RIPE who maintain list of who owns which IPs. it is not always up to date but for our purposes it is quite accurate.

I will visit their Database search


type in NoUptime and you will see some results

on the right side of the page you have “result type” filter. Select “inetnum” i.e. IPv4. You can even try inet6num for IPv6 if thats what you want to test.

The results are updated.

2. Select an IP from the results. You may have to try multiple times to get one which is live. I normally select the first IP in the range given in the results. Try different search result pages, not the first only.

So I get an IP, let’s say (not real IP)

3. Run the MTR

While this is only half the report it is still a good indicator. So let us begin. Get the MTR tool if you haven’t already. Once you get it installed run it on the target IP



#mtr (edited to remove real identification IPs etc)

Host                                    Loss%   Snt   Last   Avg  Best  Wrst StDev
 1.                           0.0%   623    0.4   0.5   0.4   1.4   0.1
 2. some.ip.near.you                            0.0%   623    3.7   6.0   3.0 102.9   8.0
 3. some.ip.further                         0.0%   623    4.9   7.7   3.7 210.7  17.8
 4. some.ip.on.isp                          0.0%   623    4.2  10.0   3.9 206.4  24.1
 5. some.ip.isp.isp               0.0%   623   10.2   7.6   4.8  40.6   2.1
 6. init7.net.any2ix.coresite.com         0.0%   623  173.6 171.4 169.6 197.7   1.7
 7. r1nyc1.core.init7.net                 0.0%   623  256.7 255.8 251.4 267.1   3.6
 8. r1lon1.core.init7.net                 0.0%   623  321.7 317.0 312.5 332.3   4.3
 9. r1nue1.core.init7.net                 0.0%   623  335.1 336.0 333.7 347.9   2.6
10. gw-nouptime.init7.net                  0.0%   622  333.5 339.0 332.3 415.5  13.3
11. core12.nouptime.de                    44.4%   622  335.5 335.6 334.2 351.6   1.6
12. core22.nouptime.de                    12.5%   622  336.8 337.3 335.3 360.8   2.9
<span style="color: #ff0000;">13. juniper2.rz13.nouptime.de              10.0%   622  373.3 351.5 328.5 424.0  23.5
14. hos-tr4.ex3k11.rz13.nouptime.de        15.0%   622  331.9 332.4 329.9 343.2   1.6</span>
15. static.    20.0%   622  337.1 336.9 335.2 346.5   0.9

This above shows the packets sent to the NoUptime IP that hosts a customer’s server and this amount of packet loss is really really bad. The packets lost are retransmitted. If you were on an ip at NoUptime you can even run the same trace from Server to your connection. It is safe to say it will be just as crappy. As per above we observe that almost 50% of the packets are lost in NoUptime at hop # 11. Which means half the data you send will never reach and will have to resent. What’s worse is that at Hop #12 another 25% of the packets that do manage survive Hop # 111 die of unnatural circumstances. so End of the day your 100 MB file will take more than twice as long to upload. Now CAVEAT: Some routers don’t respond to ICMP as claimed by providers, what I do not is why they’d respond to half the packets and not all. In any case what you need to see in the Last hop, in this case #15. Here we see 20% packet loss. This is the REAL loss and that is what matters. Again, the reason I say try with different IPs is because someone may have configured their network wrong like not turning “autoneg on”. Which was my case.

I have observed that on reverse MTR at NoUptime it’s even worse as such Downloads that account for 90% over of all regular website traffic will suffer greatly contributing to End User experience . This provider is consistent enough for me to just decide one day (today) to write about how to test and still get the same sort of lossy MTR. The reason I write this is because packet losses are normal on the internet and do not mean it is same from every location or every day.

To give any provider the benefit of the doubt you need to conduct the test over a couple of days and not continuously. Just get a sample at every few hours and for a few days (2-5 days), try from multiple locations if you have SSh access to remote servers you currently run, try the RIPE for different IP of the provider. Because device or packet loss can be fixed by engineers when detected, normally they fix on their own. If their network maintenance is really crappy and despite customer complaints they do not fix it then now you know. 

they has your packets.

they has your packets.

Do you have any more ideas on how to evaluate a new Hosting Provider? Share in the comments please.

Until next time.


EDIT: I have corrected the example. I ran a real traceroute at the time and adjusted the numbers manually for laziness. I have marked the packet loss by hops correctly to explain the scneario. Point is if you see zeroes in between then it is not an issue. It should be loss from one start point to end or -1 hop (in case the destination host is also blocking ICMP)

Also see comments from Chris below

Jan 142013

I just received email from one of my server providers in Europe “Hetzner” who I have used for over 2 years. I have a rather old server I got with a total of 8 IPs (included) in the monthly price as well as paid a hefty setup fee.

In the over almost 3 years I have never asked for price reduction or upgrade despite better offers elsewhere. Seeing as it was reasonable. I was surprised that Hetzner has out of nowhere increased the price for new IPs and also at the same time applied a 1 Euro per month additional charge for ALL existing IPs that were in fact included in the package. I know that they are not the most clean Hosts out there in their dealing and I have several problems with them. But then again I never put anything critical on their server except for my test projects or projects in development.

The change will affect everyone from March 2013. The thing is I was already looking for an alternate host out of Europe because communication and local laws is a big problem. Several times local individuals have, without substantial investigation, gotten my sites shutdown by easily issued court orders. Some of my sites like the really popular like Grepler.com which then I had to move out of this host due to this harassment.

Here is the extract of the email communication I received when I was checking my mails for price comparison of what i am paying and where to move.

As you are probably aware from various reports in the media, the number of available IPv4
addresses continues to drop drastically on a global level. In Europe, the pool of available
addresses has already been completely allocated. We shall also not be receiving any further
IPv4 addresses from the Regional Internet Registry for Europe, Reseaux IP Europeens (RIPE).

As demand for IPv4 addresses continues to remain very high, we are forced to tighten
restrictions as regards both their use and allocation to clients.

For additionally allocated IPv4 addresses and subnets, we are obliged to introduce a new
pricing model for both existing and new orders.

As a first step from 1 March 2013, additional single IPs which are to be used in addition
to the Main IP will be charged at a price of 1 euro per month. This excludes the additional
IP address required for the chargeable KVM-over-IP Remote Management Option. The change affects
existing clients, who have obtained IP addresses without additional charge. Nothing changes for
clients who are already being charged for additional single IPs.

Furthermore, adjustments in the monthly price for regular and failover subnets will take place.
Clients who are affected here are those who have up to now received subnets free-of-charge or
at favorable rates.

From 1 March, the price will change for /29 subnets which have already been allocated to
clients. Prices for larger subnets for existing contracts will be adjusted in the months
following, so as to provide clients who have correspondingly larger nets with a little more
time to prepare for consolidation of the nets.

The following overview serves to clarify the introduction of the pricing adjustment as well
as the future conditions:

Price valid from  Product              Price per Month
1 March 2013      /30 Subnet           4 euros
1 March 2013      /29 Subnet           8 euros
1 March 2013      /29 Failover Subnet  18 euros
1 April 2013      /28 Subnet           16 euros
1 April 2013      /28 Failover Subnet  26 euros
1 May 2013        /27 Subnet           32 euros
1 May 2013        /27 Failover Subnet  42 euros
1 May 2013        /26 Subnet           64 euros
1 May 2013        /26 Failover Subnet  74 euros
1 June 2013       /25 Subnet           128 euros
1 June 2013       /25 Failover Subnet  138 euros
1 June 2013       /24 Subnet           256 euros
1 June 2013       /24 Failover Subnet  266 euros
1 June 2013       /23 Subnet           512 euros

The “Price valid from” is for existing subnets. The prices mentioned above immediately apply
to all new orders for subnets. All prices incl. 19% VAT.


The email then described how much I will add on which is 8 euros. This price increase includes ALL IPs including the bare minimum  single IP you need for a server to operate anyway. My current server where the impact is highest is this old server I have which is AMD Athlon(tm) 64 Processor 3800+ single CPU with 8 IPs for which I pay 41 Euros to this day. with 8 Euro added it is a 20% increase.


Further to this they add that you can return the IPs (so they can sell for more) or you can get max of 3 IPs (chargeable)

(contd…)With this measure, we hope to receive any unused single IPs as well as subnets from you.
Depending on the size of the subnet, it is possible for you to return whole subnets to us
and to receive chargeable single IPs (max. three per server) in return



Well for one I knew I should not have paid them again to upgrade the second server I have with them which has seen several hardware failures in the first year of operation. Secondly I should have made my move long time ago, but you know its a whole lot of work to do so. I think it’s a good time to move out. What is disappointing is that they have changed the terms of agreement. What they included as part of package is now being charged again. Fact is we ran out of IPv4 over an year ago if I am not wrong. Obviously some people are willing to pay a bit more and now the same Hosts who used IP addresses in their offers are smashing through the agreements to get them back for that extra penny.  They want their subnets? They can have their whole servers back.

Problem is they don’t support IPv6 anyway. A lot of new hosts already support it and the DNS like Cloudflare, AWS RDS and Godaddy(not sure about this guy) also support it.

So far it was a very stressed situation with Hetzner.de and I am more than happy to let go and move on. I completely blame myself for falling for the cheap hosting when I went to hetzner. I don’t think other europe hosting is behind.


Considering 100Tb or liquidweb. Problem is, I automatically hate hosting that paste the word “cloud” for no good reason except buzzwords to charge more. So those are easily out. Feel free to suggest a good host for me 🙂